It looks like you are using an older version of Internet Explorer which is not supported. We advise that you update your browser to the latest version of Microsoft Edge, or consider using other browsers such as Chrome, Firefox or Safari.

Resources Library

Downloadable PDFs

—> Living and Working With MBC
Download this PDF for some practical tips on how to manage your day-to-day life with MBC.

—> Understanding Biomarker Testing
Download this brochure to learn more about metastatic breast cancer and the role that biomarkers play in treating it.

—> The PIK3CA Mutation Factsheet
Download this PDF to help you learn more about the PIK3CA mutation, and why it may matter for your type of cancer.

—> Questions to Ask Your Doctor
Download this PDF for a list of questions to ask your doctor at your next appointment.

—> Tips for Eating Well
Download this PDF for ideas to help you eat well.

—> 5 Steps to Better Emotional Wellbeing
Download this PDF for some general tips on how to manage difficult emotions.

—> 6 Tips to Help Manage Anxiety
Download this PDF for some quick tips to help you manage any feelings of anxiety that you might be experiencing.

—> Depression and MBC
Download this PDF to learn more about depression and MBC and how to get the support you need.

—> Tips to Manage MBC-Related Fatigue
Download this PDF for tips to help you manage fatigue.

—> Managing Pain From MBC
Download this PDF for tips on managing pain, which is a possible symptom of MBC.

—> Talking About Intimacy
Download this PDF to learn more about how to discuss intimacy with your partner.

Glossary of Terms

  • Advanced breast cancer: The name for breast cancer that has spread to a nearby part of the body. It can be classified as either stage 3 or stage 4. It can also be called metastatic.1
  • Biomarker: A substance found in blood, urine, or body tissue that can give doctors useful information about a cancer.2 In breast cancer, biomarkers give such important information that they are often used to describe cancer subtypes.3
  • CDK4/6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6. A type of protein in the body that helps control cell division.31
  • De novo metastatic breast cancer: Breast cancer that wasn’t detected until it had spread to another part of the body."De novo" means from the beginning.
  • DNA: Molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next5
  • Endocrine (therapy): Treatment that adds, blocks, or removes hormones6
  • Estrogen: A type of hormone made by the body that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics7
  • Fatigue: Extreme tiredness and an inability to function due to a lack of energy8
  • Gene: Units of heredity passed from parents to their offspring; pieces of DNA that contain information for making a specific protein9
  • HER2-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative: The description of a type of cancer that does not contain high amounts of the HER2 protein. This protein helps the cancer cell grow and divide. When there is too much HER2, cancer cells may grow more quickly and be more likely to spread to other parts of the body. HER2 is a biomarker and is targeted by certain treatments.2,10,11
  • Hormones: Substances in the body that control certain cells or organs12 Estrogen and progesterone are examples of hormones.13,7
  • HR+/hormone receptor positive: A type of cancer where hormone receptors that act as docking stations are found on the outside of the cancer cell. Hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, attach to these receptors and cause the cancer cell to grow.3
  • Immune system: A complex network of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make. They help the body fight infections and other diseases.14
  • Malignant: Cancerous. Cells that are malignant can spread to other parts of the body15
  • Metastatic: Cancer that has spread from the primary site (where it started) to other places in the body. This is sometimes referred to as advanced or stage 4 cancer.16,17
  • Metastatic breast cancer: Breast cancer that has spread from the primary site (the breast) to other places in the body, such as the bones, brain, lungs, or liver.18 Metastatic breast cancer is sometimes called advanced or stage 4 breast cancer.18,19
  • Mutation: Any change in the DNA sequence of a cell. Mutations can have a positive effect, a negative effect, or no effect. Some mutations may lead to cancer or other diseases.20
  • PIK3CA: A gene that sends signals to an enzyme that is an important part of a pathway that instructs cells on what to do and how often to grow and divide21
  • Premenopausal: The time before menopause. Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when her menstrual periods no longer happen.33
  • Progression: When cancer grows and spreads after being treated22
  • Postmenopausal: The time in a woman’s life when her menstrual periods no longer happen23
  • Recur/recurrent: Come back; when cancer comes back after it is treated. It may also be called advanced24
  • Stage: A number, and sometimes also a letter, that describes the extent of a cancer in the body25
  • Targeted therapy: A type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to find and attack specific types of cancer cells with less harm to normal cells26 Targeted therapy is sometimes given in combination with hormone therapy27 Ribociclib, everolimus, palbociclib, trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and alpelisib are examples of targeted therapies.28
  • Tightness in your chest: A feeling of tension or pressure in the chest that may be painful29
  • Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that forms when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer).30

REFERENCES

  1. Cancer Research UK. About advanced cancer. https://about-cancer.cancerresearchuk.org/about- cancer/breast-cancer/stages-types-grades/advanced/about. Accessed December 5, 2019.
  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Biomarkers to guide treatment for early-stage breast cancer. https://www.cancer.net/research-and-advocacy/asco-care-and-treatment- recommendations-patients/biomarkers-guide-treatment-early-stage-breast-cancer. Accessed September 25, 2019.
  3. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/adult/breast-treatment-pdq. Accessed November 6, 2019.
  4. Metastatic Breast Cancer Alliance. Incidence. mbcn.org/incidence-and-incidence-rates/. Accessed September 5, 2019.
  5. National Cancer Institute. DNA. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/dna. Accessed December 12, 2019.
  6. National Cancer Institute. Endocrine. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/endocrine-therapy. Accessed December 12, 2019.
  7. National Cancer Institute. Estrogen. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/estrogen. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  8. National Cancer Institute. Fatigue. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/fatigue. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  9. National Cancer Institute. Gene. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/gene. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  10. Breastcancer.org. HER2 Status. https://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/diagnosis/her2. Accessed June 18, 2019.
  11. National Cancer Institute. HER2 negative. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/her2-negative. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  12. National Cancer Institute. Hormone. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/her2-negative. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  13. National Cancer Institute. Progesterone. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/progesterone. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  14. National Cancer Institute. Immune system. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/immune-system. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  15. National Cancer Institute. Malignant. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/malignant. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  16. National Cancer Institute. Metastatic. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/metastatic. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  17. American Society of Clinical Oncology. What is metastasis? https://www.cancer.net/navigating- cancer-care/cancer-basics/what-metastasis. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  18. Breastcancer.org. Metastatic breast cancer. https://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/recur_metast. Accessed November 6, 2019.
  19. American Cancer Society. Understanding advanced cancer, metastatic cancer, and bone metastasis. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/advanced- cancer/what-is.html. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  20. National Cancer Institute. Mutation. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/mutation. Accessed November 7, 2019
  21. US National Library of Medicine. PIK3CA gene. Genetics Home Reference. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/PIK3CA. Accessed September 25, 2019.
  22. National Cancer Institute. Progression. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/progression. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  23. National Cancer Institute. Postmenopausal. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/postmenopausal. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  24. National Cancer Institute. Recur. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/recurrence. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  25. National Cancer Institute. Stage. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/stage. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  26. National Cancer Institute. Targeted therapy. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/targeted-therapy. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  27. American Cancer Society. Targeted therapy for breast cancer. Cancer A-Z. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/targeted-therapy-for-breast- cancer.html. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  28. National Cancer Institute. Targeted cancer therapies. https://www.cancer.gov/about- cancer/treatment/types/targeted-therapies/targeted-therapies-fact-sheet. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  29. anxietycentre.com. Chest tightness anxiety symptoms. https://www.anxietycentre.com/anxiety/symptoms/chest-tightness-anxiety.shtml. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  30. National Cancer Institute. Tumor. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/tumor. Accessed November 7, 2019.
  31. Smartpatients.com. CDK4/6 and targeted therapy.
  32. https://www.smartpatients.com/targets/CDK4-6. Accessed December 19, 2019.
  33. National Cancer Institute. Premenopausal. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/premenopausal. Accessed January 6, 2020.